What is the difference between the working directory and the git Index?

The git book defines the git index:

The Git index is used as a staging
area between your working directory
and your repository. You can use the
index to build up a set of changes
that you want to commit together. When
you create a commit, what is committed
is what is currently in the index, not
what is in your working directory
.

  • Git submodules workflow
  • Restrict read access in git repo using gitolite
  • TortoiseGit: how to change date format in “Git command progress” window?
  • Git says that a deleted file would be overwritten by merge
  • Is it possible to remove a remote repository on Github through the command line?
  • Git difftool allowing to make changes on both side
  • But I am still having a difficult time understanding it, especially the highlighted statement that “what’s committed is not what’s in my working directory”.

    So far, in my limited working with git, everything in the working directory is always committed, if I do:

    git add <all new files in the working directory>
    git commit -a -m "git will refuse to commit without this comment" 
    

    git then commits all modified files as well as all new files.

    So, in effect, my working directory is the staging area?

    I am not sure then what the git index is and how it is interpreted as the staging area.

    Could you please explain?

  • Use Git branches for book chapters
  • git-tfs: How do I clone a tfs project that contains spaces
  • Implementing 'git pull' with libgit2?
  • Single git-svn command not caching password for multiple svn actions
  • Git stash on windows extremly slow compared to Libgit2
  • Git: Moving trunk into a branch and starting over?
  • 4 Solutions collect form web for “What is the difference between the working directory and the git Index?”

    The answer in your particular case is that you are understanding the documentation correctly, but using the “shortcut” command to commit your entire working directory.

    If you run git commit -a -m "Message" then your working directory is treated like it is the staging area. This is convenient sometimes, but you lose the ability to use the index as designed. Try the following command:

    git commit -m "Message"
    

    If you do this instead, you can use the staging area to commit only part of the changes you have made to your working directory.

    The trick is:

    when you add (git add) to the index, you don’t have to commit right away

    So if you add some super complex function, and then proceed to change and… finally break it completely, you still can commit, because what is in your index (what you have added 10 minutes ago before break it with further failed modifications) is not what is currently in your working tree (which is hopelessly broken right now).

    So it can help adding from time to time to the index a current development effort, knowing that you can commit at any time the last “stable” state you have indexed.


    The other way what is committed is not what is in your working tree is when you git add --patch:

    Interactively choose hunks of patch between the index and the work tree and add them to the index.
    This gives the user a chance to review the difference before adding modified contents to the index.

    You can add portion of your current file to the index (like one of the three functions you are writing), and then commit only that.

    The index is a copy of the directory tree managed by git. Initially, it is a copy of what is in the HEAD commit. git add copies files from the working directory to the index. git commit creates a new commit from what is in the index.

    The index is like a buffer– it is not stored in the git history but access to it is controlled by git (unlike your working directory, which can be accessed in any number of ways). git commits from the index so what is committed is something that git controls.

    The index/staging area is NOT your working directory. You can do a simple test to see this. Create a file in your working directory called, say, foo. Add some text to the file. Then do git add foo. Now edit foo again and add (or remove) some more text.

    If you run git diff --cached (which shows what’s in the index), you’ll only see foo as it was after the first round of edits and subsequent git add. If you do git diff (which shows what’s changed in your working directory), you will see all of the additional modifications you have made since the git add.

    Git Baby is a git and github fan, let's start git clone.