What are the differences between 'revert', 'amend,' 'rollback', and 'undo' a commit?

Although I use Git pretty often, I’m still a beginner.

Sometimes, I make a mistake but spot it only after I have committed it. At that point, I usually have to spend a long time on the Internet looking for the command I should use to get rid of it (before pushing).

  • git commit --amend without asking for message
  • Why does git call me “clever” when I reword the last commit message?
  • Change commit message for specific commit
  • Git: How to edit/reword a merge commit's message?
  • How to amend a commit without changing commit message (reusing the previous one)?
  • How to push to repo after doing 'git commit --amend'
  • Every time that happens, I find myself wondering what’s the difference between the four terms that I usually come across:

    I’ve that it’s finally time to learn those differences once and for all. What are they?

  • Removing a specific commit in the git history with several branches?
  • Forcing 'git merge' to declare all differences as a merge conflict
  • gitolite push error -> remote: ENV GL_RC not set
  • Import an existing Git repository into IntelliJ IDEA
  • What can cause data loss in git?
  • git subtree pull says that the working tree has modifications, but git status says it doesn't. What gives?
  • 2 Solutions collect form web for “What are the differences between 'revert', 'amend,' 'rollback', and 'undo' a commit?”

    The terms revert and amend have a well defined meaning in Git. In contrast, rollback and undo do not have such a well defined meaning, and are open to interpretation.

    Reverting a commit…

    …means creating (on the current branch) a new commit that applies the inverse changes that another commit introduced. It’s the preferred approach for correcting a problem in a repo that has already been shared with others, because it doesn’t involve any destruction (i.e. rewriting history).

    To revert a commit identified by <commit>, simply run

        git revert <commit>
    

    Amending a commit…

    …means replacing the “current” commit by a new one that has the same parent(s); more details in How does git commit –amend work, exactly?

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    Be aware that

    • amending a commit that you’ve already pushed to a shared remote is bad practice, because it’s a form of history rewriting (it “deletes” the most recent commit, which your collaborators may have already based their work on);
    • you can only amend the last commit on a given branch; to rewrite older commits, you need to bring out the big guns (e.g. interactive rebase).

      To amend a commit, make all the required changes and stage them, then run

      git commit --amend
      

      No need to specify any commit, here, because the last commit on the current branch is the one that will be amended. Your editor will then pop up, giving you the opportunity to modify the commit message.

    Rolling back…

    …usually means discarding (or stashing) any local changes and resetting the branch to a commit (or simply checking out a commit, but that puts you in detached-HEAD state) prior to commit one where things started to get messed up. Use

        git reset <commit-before-things-started-to-go-belly-up>
    

    Undo a commit…

    …can mean, depending on the context, either revert or amend a commit.

    git –amend
    You should use the git –amend command only for commits which have not been pushed to a public branch of another Git repository.
    The git –amend command creates a new commit ID and people may have based their work already on the existing commit.
    In this case they would need to migrate their work based on the new commit

    git revert
    You can revert commits via the git revert command. This command reverts the changes of a commit.
    Such commits are useful to document that a change was withdrawn.

    Here is a [enter link description here][1]

    [1]: How do you roll back (reset) a Git repository to a particular commit? on rollback techniques

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